Exploring somatization types among patients in Indonesia: latent class analysis using the Adult Symptom Inventory

Wahyu Widhiarso, M. Noor Rochman Hadjam


The aim of this study was to explore somatization types by reducing patient complaints to their most basic and parsimonious characteristics. We hypothesized that there were latent groups representing distinct types of somatization.

Participants and procedure

Data were collected from patients undergoing both inpatient and outpatient treatment at two hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (N = 212).


Results from latent class analysis revealed four classes of somatization: two classes (Classes 1 and 2) referring to levels of somatization and two classes (Classes 3 and 4) referring to unique types of somatization. The first two classes (Classes 1 and 2; low and high levels of somatization, respectively) corresponded to the number of different symptoms that patients reported out of the list of physical symptoms in the Adult Symptom Inventory. The second two classes (Classes 3 and 4; non-serious and critical complaints, respectively) corresponded to two different sets of symptoms. Patients in Class 3 tended to report temporary mild complaints that are common in daily life, such as dizziness, nausea, and stomach pain. Patients in Class 4 tended to report severe complaints and medical problems that require serious treatment or medication, such as deafness or blindness.


The present study do confirm somatization as a unidimensional experience reflecting a general tendency to report somatic symptoms, but rather support the understanding of somatization as a multidimensional construct.

keywords: physical complaints; type of somatization; latent class analysis